Properties and Applications of Graphene Oxide and Functionalized Graphene

Presently, various methods are used to provide graphene and these embody epitaxial development, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), and thermal or mechanical exfoliation. Giant scale manufacturing of graphene will also be successfully realized by chemical discount of graphene oxide.

Since graphene was first reported in 2004, made utilizing mechanical exfoliation from graphite, graphite oxide has attracted a substantial amount of curiosity, as researchers have explored easier, extra environment friendly, cheaper and higher yielding strategies of synthesizing graphene, which will be scaled up simply and retain commercially viable properties for industrial functions.

From Graphite Oxide to Graphene Oxide

Graphite is a 3D-carbon based mostly materials, which will be considered being made out of many layers of graphene. Graphite oxide is barely totally different from graphite.

When robust oxidizing brokers are used to oxidize graphite, oxygenated functionalities are launched within the construction of the graphite, which makes the fabric hydrophilic, and likewise expands the layer separation.

This function makes it attainable to exfoliate the graphite oxide in water by sonication and this ultimately produces monolayer or few-layer oxygen-functionalized graphene, referred to as graphene oxide or GO.

The variety of layers is the key distinction between graphene oxide and graphite oxide. Though graphite oxide is a multilayer system, monolayer flakes and few-layer flakes will be present in a graphene oxide dispersion.

Properties and Functions of Graphene Oxide

As a result of presence of oxygen functionalities, graphene oxide can simply disperse in natural solvents, water, and totally different matrixes. It is a main profit when combining the fabric with polymer or ceramic matrixes to boost their mechanical and electrical properties.

With respect to electrical conductivity, graphene oxide capabilities as {an electrical} insulator, due to the disturbance of its sp2 bonding networks. It is very important cut back the graphene oxide in order to recuperate the honeycomb hexagonal lattice of graphene, with the intention to restore electrical conductivity.

After numerous oxygen teams have been eliminated, it isn’t straightforward to disperse the decreased graphene oxide (rGO), as a result of this materials tends to provide aggregates.

The properties of graphene will be modified by the functionalization of graphene oxide. The chemically-altered graphenes obtained by this technique might probably be utilized in a number of functions. Relying on the supposed software, the graphene oxide will be functionalized in various methods.

A technique to make sure that the chemically-altered graphenes disperse simply in natural solvents is to make use of amines by natural covalent functionalization, as an example. This makes the fabric higher suited to manufacturing of biodevices and optoelectronics, and to be used in drug supply.

Additionally, it has been proven that it’s attainable to connect fullerene-functionalized secondary amines and porphyrin-functionalized major amines to graphene oxide platelets, to boost the nonlinear optical efficiency of the fabric.

Graphene oxide might probably be used as an middleman within the manufacturing of single layer or few-layer graphene sheets. To attain this, an oxidization and discount course of ought to be developed that may isolate carbon layers and separate then with out altering their construction.

When it comes to mass manufacturing of graphene, the chemical discount of graphene oxide is taken into account to be one of the viable strategies. Nevertheless, scientists have discovered it difficult to create graphene sheets which have the identical high quality as these made by mechanical exfoliation on a big scale.

Graphene Oxide Movie from Graphenea

Graphenea produce a graphene oxide movie (Determine 1), by filtering a monolayer graphene oxide dispersion. The movie is non-conductive, has a thickness of 12 to 15µm, and measures 4cm in diameter.

Graphene oxide film

Determine 1. Graphene oxide movie

Millipore Filter Specs

  • Thickness: 105µm
  • Porosity: 70%
  • Pore dimension: 0.025µm
  • Materials: Biologically inert mixtures of cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate s

Elemental Evaluation

  • Oxygen: 41 – 50%
  • Hydrogen: 0 – 1%
  • Nitrogen: 0 – 1%
  • Sulfur: 0 – 2%
  • Carbon: 49 – 56%


Graphene oxide movies are used within the following functions:

  • Graphene analysis
  • Biomedical
  • Photo voltaic cells
  • Graphene/polymer composite supplies
  • Batteries
  • Supercapacitors
  • Help for metallic catalysts
  • Low permeability supplies
  • Biosensors
  • Multifunctional supplies

High quality Management

Graphenea provides graphene oxide filters that undergo stringent high quality verify course of in order to make sure that the merchandise produced are of top quality and have good reproducibility. The corporate additionally offers custom-made options for software requiring extra particular high quality management.

This data has been sourced, reviewed and tailored from supplies offered by Graphenea.

For extra data on this supply, please go to Graphenea.