Graphene is a quickly rising star on the horizon of supplies science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional materials reveals exceptionally excessive crystal and digital high quality, and, regardless of its brief historical past, has already revealed a cornucopia of latest physics and potential functions, that are briefly mentioned right here. Whereas one might be sure of the realness of functions solely when industrial merchandise seem, graphene now not requires any additional proof of its significance by way of elementary physics. Owing to its uncommon digital spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a brand new paradigm of ‘relativistic’ condensed-matter physics, the place quantum relativistic phenomena, a few of that are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and examined in table-top experiments. Extra usually, graphene represents a conceptually new class of supplies which are just one atom thick, and, on this foundation, presents new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has by no means ceased to shock and continues to offer a fertile floor for functions.