Functionalized graphene oxide serves as a novel vaccine nano-adjuvant for

Benefiting from their distinctive physicochemical properties, graphene derivatives have attracted nice consideration in biomedicine. On this research, we rigorously engineered graphene oxide (GO) as a vaccine adjuvant for immunotherapy utilizing urease B (Ure B) because the mannequin antigen. Ure B is a particular antigen for Helicobacter pylori, which is a category I carcinogen for gastric most cancers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and numerous forms of polyethylenimine (PEI) have been used as coating polymers. In contrast with single-polymer modified GOs (GO–PEG and GO–PEI), sure dual-polymer modified GOs (GO–PEG–PEI) can act as a constructive modulator to advertise the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and improve their cytokine secretion by way of the activation of a number of toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways whereas displaying low toxicity. Furthermore, this GO–PEG–PEI can function an antigen provider to successfully shuttle antigens into DCs. These two benefits allow GO–PEG–PEI to function a novel vaccine adjuvant. Within the subsequent in vivo experiments, in contrast with free Ure B and clinically used aluminum-adjuvant-based vaccine (Alum-Ure B), GO–PEG–PEI–Ure B induces stronger mobile immunity by way of intradermal administration, suggesting promising purposes in most cancers immunotherapy. Our work not solely presents a novel, extremely efficient GO-based vaccine nano-adjuvant, but additionally highlights the essential roles of floor chemistry for the rational design of nano-adjuvants.

Graphical abstract: Functionalized graphene oxide serves as a novel vaccine nano-adjuvant for robust stimulation of cellular immunity

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